Protocol for diagnosing diabetes:
According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK):
- People over age 45 should be tested for diabetes. If the first blood glucose test is normal, they should be re-tested every three years.
- People under age 45 should be tested for diabetes if they are at high risk for diabetes based on these factors:
- being more than 20 percent over ideal body weight, or having a body mass index (BMI) of greater than or equal to 27 kgm/m2
- having a first-degree relative with diabetes (mother, father, or sibling)
- being a member of a high-risk ethnic group (African-American, Hispanic, Asian, or Native American)
- delivering a baby weighing more than 9 pounds, or having diabetes during pregnancy
- having blood pressure at or above 140/90 mm/Hg
- having abnormal blood fat levels, such as high-density lipoproteins (HDL) less than or equal to 35 mg/dL, or triglycerides greater than or equal to 250 mg/dL (mg/dL = milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood)
- having a sedentary lifestyle
- having impaired glucose tolerance when previously tested for diabetes
- having polycystic ovarian syndrome
A diagnosis of diabetes:
A diagnosis of diabetes is made when any three of these tests is positive, followed by a second positive test on a different day:
- fasting plasma glucose of greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL with symptoms of diabetes
- casual plasma glucose (taken at any time of the day) of greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL with the symptoms of diabetes
- oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) value of greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL. The OGTT is obtained 2 hours after a drink containing gludose has been consumed, which occurs after fasting for at least 8 hours.
A diagnosis of gestational diabetes:
Gestational diabetes is diagnosed with a 100-gram glucose screening test, which involves drinking a glucose drink followed by measurement of the blood sugar level after one hour.
Consult your physician regarding your wish to be screened for gestational diabetes.