Alcohol and Pregnancy
The risks involved with alcohol use during pregnancy:
Alcohol consumption by the mother is a leading cause of preventable birth defects in the fetus and is the only known cause of mental retardation that is completely preventable. Everything a mother drinks also goes to the fetus. Alcohol is broken down more slowly in the immature body of the fetus than in an adult's body. This can cause the alcohol levels to remain high and stay in the baby's body longer. In addition, the risk of miscarriage and stillbirth increases with alcohol consumption.
Even light or moderate drinking can affect the developing fetus. Because no amount of alcohol is safe, the US Surgeon General recommends that pregnant women avoid alcohol during pregnancy. An infant born to a mother who drinks alcohol during pregnancy can have problems included in a group of disorders called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). FASDs include the following:
- Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS): these are the most severe effects that can occur when a woman drinks during pregnancy,and include fetal death. Infants born with FAS have abnormal facial features and growth and central nervous system (CNS) problems, including mental retardation.
- Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND): children with ARND may not have full FAS but have learning and behavioral problems due to prenatal exposure to alcohol. These problems may include mathematical difficulties, impaired memory or attention, impulse control and/or judgment problems, and poor school performance.
- Alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD): birth defects related to prenatal alcohol exposure can include abnormalities in the heart, kidneys, bones, and/or hearing.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the following characteristics or behaviors may occur in children with FASDs:
- Small for gestational age at birth or small stature compared with their peers
- Facial abnormalities, such as small eyes and thin mouth
- Poor physical coordination
- Hyperactive behaviors
- Learning disabilities
- Developmental disabilities (e.g., speech and language delays)
- Cognitive delays or low IQ
- Problems with daily living
- Poor reasoning and judgment skills
- Sleep and sucking problems in infancy
Long-term problems in children with FASDs may include psychiatric problems, gang and criminal behavior, unemployment, and incomplete education.
There is no cure for FASDs, but children who are diagnosed early and receive appropriate physical and educational interventions, especially those in a stable and nurturing home, are more likely to have better outcomes than those who are not.