Head and Neck Cancer Treatment
Head and neck cancers may grow quickly. The earlier that a cancer is diagnosed, the more likely the treatment will be successful.
At the University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center, our physicians strive to provide head and neck cancer treatment that is effective and gives the patient the best chance of preserving speech, taste, and swallowing function. In most cases, effective treatment does not require radical surgery.
Matching the appropriate treatment to the right patient is vitally important in cancer care. For head and neck cancer, treatment may involve an intensive combination of radiation and chemotherapy. Or it may center on surgery, followed by radiation and chemotherapy. University of Chicago experts from surgery, medical oncology and radiation oncology work together as a team to develop the best treatment plan for each patient.
Head and neck cancer treatment options are determined by the stage of the cancer, the location of the tumor, and other factors. Here, treatment is typically provided as outlined in the following table:
Surgery or radiation therapy
Stage II (cancer has not spread to lymph nodes)
Therapy depends upon the location of the tumor, and may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or a combined approach.
Stages III and IV
A combined radiation therapy and chemotherapy approach is typically the first line of treatment. In other cases, surgery is performed first, followed by chemoradiation.
- Chemotherapy Plus Radiation: A "One-Two" Punch
- Precise Radiation Therapy Treatments
- When Surgery Is the Solution
- When Reconstruction Is Needed
- Many Options for Recurrent Disease
Doctors at the University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center are leaders in the development of a new treatment regimen that helps certain patients with head and neck cancer avoid surgery. This combined therapy approach harnesses the power of chemotherapy and radiation therapy to work in tandem to shrink tumors. Our experts have published studies on the success of this approach, and report that it controls cancer in more than 85 percent of patients with advanced disease, with 62 percent of patients surviving long term.
A sample combined therapy approach may involve five, 14-day treatment cycles. For the first five days of the treatment cycle, the patient will receive multiple chemotherapy drugs and twice-daily radiation therapy treatments during a hospital stay. Then, the patient returns home for nine days. Patients who previously had surgery may be treated with four, 14-day cycles of treatment.
Any patient with any type of head and neck cancer with lymph node involvement may be a candidate for this approach.
At the University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center, our radiation oncologists are internationally recognized for their expertise, and use sophisticated methods and machines to deliver precise treatments that target tumors while sparing healthy tissue. We were one of the first hospitals in the nation to offer intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to treat head and neck cancer. With IMRT, the radiation beam is accurately shaped to follow the contours of the tumor. The beam's intensity is controlled in relation to its location on the tumor and its proximity to healthy tissues and critical structures such as the salivary glands or the optic nerve.
Our team uses image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) to ensure that treatments are set up the right way, every time. Before each treatment, our specialists confirm the exact tumor position and make any needed adjustments before treatment begins. Here, our experts have refined IGRT by developing a 3-D imaging system to improve treatment planning. An added benefit of this system is faster treatment sessions since less time is required for set-up at each visit.
For many patients with early-stage head and neck cancer, surgery is the best option for a successful outcome in terms of survival and preservation of function. Endoscopic laser resection is one of the many techniques used to address early stage lesions. This minimally invasive approach uses sophisticated thin instruments equipped with a laser that enables the surgeon to remove tumors with pinpoint precision.
When patients have advanced disease, our expert surgeons work with radiation and medical oncologists to develop the best treatment plan.
When Reconstruction Is Needed
Our cancer experts are skilled at using organ-sparing and reconstructive techniques to maintain a patient’s physical appearance and function during or after treatment. Patients are often referred to the University of Chicago for complex wounds that have developed as a complication of prior treatment. Examples include soft-tissue wounds, aspiration (inhalation of material into the lungs), and osteoradionecrosis (bone death caused by radiation). Our head and neck surgeons team with our plastic surgeons to transfer new tissue to help heal wounds, relieve pain, and give hope.
For patients with recurrent disease, options often include surgery in addition to radiation, and experimental therapies. Our doctors can provide innovative approaches and state-of-the-art reconstructions for patients with recurrent cancer. Our treatments can provide pain relief, wound rehabilitation and hope for survival. Patients with recurrent head and neck cancers are often referred after being told "nothing can be done." Our team believes that there is always something that can be done to support patients and their families.
The University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center is a leader in re-irradiation--a second treatment with full-dose radiotherapy--combining radiation with chemotherapy and molecularly targeted agents. In addition, we have a very active program using novel drugs in patients with metastatic disease.