Head and Neck Cancer Treatment
Head and neck cancers may grow quickly. The earlier stage that a cancer is diagnosed, the more likely the treatment will be successful.
At the University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center, our physicians strive to provide head and neck cancer treatment that is effective and gives the patient the best outcome while preserving as much speech, taste and swallowing function as possible.
Matching the appropriate treatment to the right patient is vitally important in cancer care. For head and neck cancer, treatment may involve a combination of surgery, radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. University of Chicago experts from surgery, medical oncology, radiation oncology, radiology and pathology meet regularly to carefully review cases and to work together as a team to develop the best treatment plan for each patient.
Head and neck cancer treatment options are determined by the stage of the cancer, the location of the tumor, and other factors. At the University of Chicago Medicine, treatment is typically provided as outlined in the following table:
Stage I and II
Surgery or radiation therapy.
Stages III and IV
A combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
Recurrent and/or Metastatic Disease
In addition to salvage treatment approaches (treatments given after the cancer has not responded to previous treatments), such as surgery and second courses of chemoradiation, we offer many novel therapies as part of clinical trials, including several immunotherapy options.
- Chemotherapy Plus Radiation: A "One-Two" Punch
- Precise Radiation Therapy Treatments
- When Surgery Is the Solution
- When Reconstruction Is Needed
- Immunotherapy: Boosting the Immune System to Fight Cancer
- HPV-Associated Head and Neck Cancers
- Many Options for Recurrent Disease
University of Chicago Medicine physicians pioneered an innovative first-line combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy approach that effectively shrinks some head and neck tumors, reducing the need for surgery. Our experts have published several studies on the success of these regimens.
A sample chemotherapy plus radiation therapy approach may involve five, 14-day treatment cycles. For the first five days of the treatment cycle, the patient will receive multiple chemotherapy drugs and twice-daily radiation therapy treatments during a hospital stay. Then, the patient returns home for nine days. Patients who previously had surgery may be treated with four, 14-day cycles of treatment.
Any patient with any type of head and neck cancer with lymph node involvement may be a candidate for this approach.
At the University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center, our radiation oncologists are internationally recognized for their expertise, and use sophisticated methods and machines to deliver precise treatments that target tumors while sparing healthy tissue. We were one of the first hospitals in the nation to offer intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to treat head and neck cancer. With IMRT, the radiation beam is accurately shaped to follow the contours of the tumor. The beam's intensity is controlled in relation to its location on the tumor and its proximity to healthy tissues and critical structures such as the salivary glands or the optic nerve.
Our team uses image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) to ensure that treatments are set up the right way, every time. Before each treatment, our specialists confirm the exact tumor position and make any needed adjustments before treatment begins. Here, our experts have refined IGRT by developing a 3-D imaging system to improve treatment planning. An added benefit of this system is faster treatment sessions since less time is required for set-up at each visit.
For many patients with head and neck cancer, surgery is the best option for a successful outcome. When patients have advanced disease, our expert head and neck cancer surgeons work with radiation and medical oncologists to develop a tailored treatment plan.
No matter the type or stage of cancer, if surgery is required, our experts focus on providing the most effective treatment to preserve as much breathing, eating, speech and swallowing function as possible. Some procedures may be performed using minimally invasive techniques or robotic surgery, resulting in a quicker recovery and less pain and scarring than open procedures.
At the University of Chicago Medicine, head and neck cancer surgeons perform the full range of innovative techniques to diagnose and treat cancers, including:
- Endoscopic surgery, a minimally invasive approach that uses thin instruments to remove tumors with pinpoint precision.
- Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) uses sophisticated robotic technology to remove hard-to-reach tumors through the mouth, rather than creating larger incisions in the neck or jaw. During TORS, surgeons guide small robotic arms to remove tumors. The advanced system gives surgeons a 3-D view of the back of the mouth and throat during surgery.
- Transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) is a minimally invasive treatment for throat cancers. During TLM, the surgeon gets a magnified view of the tumor with a microscope, and then uses a laser to remove it with precision, limiting the damage to nearby healthy tissue.
- Partial laryngectomy is the removal of part of the voice box (larynx), which may be performed using minimally invasive or open surgery. This procedure preserves tissue and structures critical to speech and swallowing function.
When Reconstruction Is Needed
Our cancer experts are skilled at using organ-sparing and reconstructive techniques to maintain a patient’s physical appearance and function during or after treatment. Patients are often referred to the University of Chicago for complex wounds that have developed as a complication of prior treatment. Examples include soft-tissue wounds, aspiration (inhalation of material into the lungs), and osteoradionecrosis (bone death caused by radiation). Our head and neck surgeons work with our plastic surgeons to transfer new tissue to help heal wounds, relieve pain, and give hope.
University of Chicago Medicine oncologists are pioneers in immunotherapy, treatments that help the immune system -- the body's natural defense system -- fight cancer. Immunotherapy is less likely to cause the side effects associated with traditional cancer treatments such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy. In particular, novel immune checkpoint inhibitors help the body recognize and attack cancer cells. A 2015 study by our experts found that the anti-PD-1 immunotherapy pembrolizumab was effective in very advanced recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancers and roughly twice as good as the best currently approved targeted therapy. In this study, immunotherapy was active across a wide range of patients, including HPV-associated and HPV-negative tumors. While still an emerging treatment approach for head and neck cancer, our experts offer these treatments as part of clinical trials, as they hold potential to prolong survival for many patients.
A Center of Excellence for HPV-Associated Head and Neck Cancer
In recent years, cases of head and neck cancer linked to the human papillomavirus (HPV) have increased dramatically. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States, and is the cause of most cases of oropharynx cancer (cancer of the tonsils and base of the tongue). These tumors are different from traditional head and neck cancers with respect to risk factors and prognosis.
Our team has extensive experience treating patients with HPV-positive head and neck cancer, and is at the forefront of research into how HPV-associated cancers differ in response to treatments, with the goal of tailoring effective therapies to reduce side effects and improve overall quality of life. Examples of outstanding care include robotic surgery, making treatment less intense and therefore better tolerated, and using new approaches that harness the power of the immune system to fight cancer.
Many Options for Recurrent Disease
For patients with recurrent disease, options often include surgery in addition to radiation, and experimental therapies. Our doctors can provide innovative approaches and state-of-the-art reconstructions for patients with recurrent cancer. Our treatments can provide pain relief, wound rehabilitation and hope for survival. Patients with recurrent head and neck cancers are often referred after being told "nothing can be done." Our team believes that there is always something that can be done to support patients and their families.
The University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center is a leader in re-irradiation--a second treatment with full-dose radiotherapy--combining radiation with chemotherapy and molecularly targeted agents. In addition, we have a very active program using novel drugs in patients with metastatic disease including several immunotherapy options.